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Born scientist wins Nobel Prize in Physics

Born scientist wins Nobel Prize in Physics”

The 2019 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded on Monday to two Americans and a British scientist for their discoveries in how the body's cells sense and react to oxygen levels.

Sir Peter is based at the Francis Crick Institute in London, while Kaelin and Semenza are based at Harvard University and Johns Hopkins University.

Kaelin also received an honorary degree from Duke in 2018 and the Duke University School of Medicine Distinguished Alumni Award in 2007.

The well-known Swedish Academy said, "The fundamental importance of oxygen has been understood for centuries, but how cells adapt to changes in levels of oxygen has always been unknown".

Randall Johnson, a member of the Nobel Assembly, compared the molecular machinery the scientists discovered to a switch that ensures that the body always has the right level of oxygen.

The researchers found there is a genetic link to how cells sense if they are receiving too little oxygen and what they do as a result.

The body of research improved understanding of physiological processes including metabolism and immune response. Our bodies rely entirely on it to convert food into reusable energy.

Ratcliffe started as a doctor specializing in the kidney organ. "From the beginning, I have always had colleagues".

Each research team worked independently for over two decades to determine the response of cells to oxygen abundance.

Ratcliffe and Semenza then applied this knowledge to show that the oxygen sensing mechanism was present in virtually all human tissues.

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He said that some useful drugs have been developed from the research.

Medicine is the first of the Nobel Prizes given each year.

Kaelin, he says, was nearly speechless, and Semenza was still asleep when the call came. In particular, report Gina Kolata and Megan Specia at the New York Times, the cancers are associated with overproduction of blood vessels and increased production of EPO.

IT is being challenged with either trying to fix and maintain an already complex system of solution integrations, or exploring driving business impact by unifying its systems under one platform.

His work set the stage for a "transformation" of cosmology over the last half-century, using theoretical tools and calculations that helped interpret traces from the infancy of the universe, the committee said.

"The basic question is how the cancer cells can survive the lack-of-oxygen condition, and how what doesn't kill them can make them stronger", Zhang said.

The three will equally share the prize worth about $918,000.

Asked how he would spend the money, Kaelin said he did not know yet, but that he would "try to put it to some good cause". The prize ceremony will take place on December 10, on the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death.

Why these exceptions? Well, the statutes of the Nobel Foundation say: "If none of the works under consideration is found to be of the importance indicated in the first paragraph, the prize money shall be reserved until the following year".



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