Health Care

Goldfish turn to alcohol to get through winter in icy ponds

Goldfish turn to alcohol to get through winter in icy ponds”

Scientists have uncovered how the goldfish produce alcohol to survive harsh winters beneath frozen lakes, a remarkable ability that makes it one of the most resilient pets under human care. It won't let them die in extreme winter conditions.

In a paper published to Scientific Reports, a team of researchers from the University of Liverpool discovered that goldfish and their wild relatives, the crucian carp, are able to convert anaerobically produced lactic acid into ethanol. This is an issue that many fish must deal with, typically by slowing down their movement dramatically and continuing to pull oxygen out of the water by passing it over their gills, but carp have developed a particularly robust backup system for dealing with oxygen depletion. This enzyme is released when oxygen runs low and lactic acid begins building up, and ensures that the goldfish only create ethanol through fermentation, instead of lactic acid. If goldfish can not get rid of this lactic acid, they would die within few minutes.

They have pinpointed sets of proteins which are normally used to produce energy by channelling carbohydrates towards their breakdown within a cell's mitochondria.

Based on genetic analysis performed on the protein sets, this unusual feature came about as a result of a "genome duplication event" that took place about 8 million years ago in a common ancestor of goldfish and crucian carp.

While one of the proteins is similar to its vertebrate cousins, the second has been found to switch on in the absence of oxygen, allowing for the production of alcohol outside the mitochondria.

"The adaptation is very rare among animals".

By making alcohol, crucian carp and goldfish can survive months under icy water. And while that might sound preposterous, or like something out of a cartoon, study co-author Michael Berenbrink from the University of Liverpool told Gizmodo that the behavior of goldfish does seem to change after they "brew" their alcohol, though it isn't sure whether these changes are due to the alcohol or part of a survival strategy.

Scientists at the University of Oslo in Norway and University of Liverpool in the United Kingdom found the molecular mechanism behind this highly unusual ability, which is unique among vertebrates and more commonly associated with brewer's yeast.

"However, this is still a much better situation than filling up with lactic acid, which is the metabolic end product for other vertebrates, including humans, when devoid of oxygen", said Berenbrink.

Crucian carp and goldfish have developed an anaerobic metabolic - that is, oxygen independent - fallback process.

Like this



14 August 2017
Gorakhpur Tragedy : Yogi Adityanath Breaks Down During Media Briefing
The Congress also alleged that the Adityanath government was running an "operation cover-up" in an attempt to bury the truth. He said that he had written three letters to the government flagging the issue.

14 August 2017
Trump Sends Navy Destroyer To Challenge China At Sea
It also comes as US President Donald Trump is seeking China's cooperation to rein in North Korea's nuclear weapons programme. Navy operation because they are based near Mischief Reef, which is also claimed by the Philippines, the official said.

14 August 2017
Ric Flair Reportedly Hospitalized For Heart-Related Issues
Flair's daughter Charlotte is missing SmackDown Live house shows this weekend due to being in Hong Kong for a WWE publicity tour. The rep for Flair added, "Yes, we'd like to thank his fiancé & the incredible hospital staff who are providing the best care".

14 August 2017
Thomas Rhett: Happy Birthday Ada James
Her happy place is Michaels craft store. "Thank you Lord and everyone for the prayers #outnumbered ", added Thomas Rhett , 27. On Wednesday, Lauren documented how she was getting ready for labor. "We tried to get pregnant for a little bit before".

14 August 2017
Green Mile takes its toll on PGA leaders
Of the 15 players who remained under par, Oosthuizen is the only one who has won a major, and that was seven years ago. None of us wanted to wake up at 5 and get ready and play one hole and then sit around and wait to tee off again.

13 August 2017
Former spy chief: Denuclearized North Korea not in the cards
North Korea, according to the director, has been moving at an "ever alarming rate" to develop nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles. North Korean officials in turn have accused the US leader of driving the Korean peninsula to the brink of nuclear war.

13 August 2017
N.Korea threatens to launch missiles towards US' Guam
Andersen is also host to fighter planes and the aerial tankers that make long-distance strikes on North Korea possible. There are two major bases on Guam: Andersen Air Force Base in the north and Naval Base Guam in the south.

13 August 2017
North Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program Has Grown With Each Kim Regime
Guam has fired off an Imminent Missile Threat fact sheet in response to the apocalyptic threat from North Korea . Those who can't get indoors or behind some type of protections should simply lie down and cover their heads.

13 August 2017
Two cabinet ministers 'interested in new anti-Brexit party idea'
The Conservative brand will be so tarnished by its support of Brexit it will never win a majority again, a former Tory advisor has warned.

13 August 2017
Arsenal To Make Alexis Sanchez Premier League's Highest-paid Player
The Gunners have brought in both Sead Kolasinac and Alexandre Lacazette. Arsene Wenger at Birds Nest, Beijing, China, July 22.